Mechanical Principles S3 Standard Grade PE 19 th April 2011. Extension is considered a movement opposite that of flexion; it is an approximation of the extensor surfaces of two bones. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. "@type": "ImageObject", Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion retraction Vectors (JMb2i+b@-QanY7MSDYo&$tod_G,nSx6SR1'[_[O0] kbd]_'zgBPLbMY] _gamug;#(Pe];:tg[ ", As depicted in Figure 1-7, for example, the shoulder has 3 degrees of freedom, meaning the shoulder can move freely in all three planes. Many of these terms are illustrated in Figure 1-5. Anterior: Toward the front of the body, Posterior: Toward the back of the body, Midline: An imaginary line that courses vertically through the center of the body, Medial: Toward the midline of the body, Lateral: Away from the midline of the body, Proximal: Closer to, or toward the torso, Caudal: Toward the feet (or tail), Superficial: Toward the surface (skin) of the body, Deep: Toward the inside (core) of the body, Origin: The proximal attachment of a muscle or ligament, Insertion: The distal attachment of a muscle or ligament, Prone: Describes the position of an individual lying face down, Supine: Describes the position of an individual lying face up. 0000005993 00000 n 0000005238 00000 n "contentUrl": "https://slideplayer.com/slide/7353942/24/images/2/Balance+%28Centre+of+Gravity%29.jpg", It can help you keep balanced. Sagittal plane: Divides the body into left and right halves. The larger your base of support and the lower you base support the more stable you are. Internal (medial) and external (lateral) rotation. After the throw you follow through and keep turning until you have regained your balance. The axis of rotation is the pivot point about which the rotation of the body occurs. Modified over 6 years ago, 1 trailer << /Size 1997 /Info 1946 0 R /Root 1949 0 R /Prev 638002 /ID[<4aa636ef24fbe8630222f83c1d43123f><01d377200cf64d4999f8da4d3badfce7>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 1949 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 1944 0 R /Metadata 1947 0 R /Outlines 1778 0 R /OpenAction [ 1951 0 R /Fit ] /PageMode /UseNone /PageLayout /SinglePage /PageLabels 1942 0 R /StructTreeRoot 1950 0 R /PieceInfo << /MarkedPDF << /LastModified (D:20041207185600)>> >> /LastModified (D:20041207185600) /MarkInfo << /Marked true /LetterspaceFlags 0 >> >> endobj 1950 0 obj << /Type /StructTreeRoot /ParentTree 1797 0 R /ParentTreeNextKey 17 /K [ 1799 0 R 1807 0 R 1814 0 R 1820 0 R 1831 0 R 1841 0 R 1849 0 R 1858 0 R 1867 0 R 1878 0 R 1887 0 R 1895 0 R 1903 0 R 1911 0 R 1919 0 R 1928 0 R 1937 0 R ] /RoleMap 1940 0 R >> endobj 1995 0 obj << /S 3080 /O 5183 /L 5199 /C 5215 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 1996 0 R >> stream E.g.

kinetics Midline: An imaginary line that courses vertically through the center of the body pronation Tags: Essentials of Kinesiology for the Physical Therapist Assistant Describe the arthrokinematic principles of movement. }, 5 Which direction does that cause them to move? superficial "contentUrl": "https://slideplayer.com/slide/7353942/24/images/5/Application+of+Force+Newton%E2%80%99s+Third+Law%3A+For+every+action+there+is+an+equal+and+opposite+reaction..jpg", Many of the terms are specific to a particular region of the body. 0000006060 00000 n Anterior: Toward the front of the body Application of force. Figure 1-5 Anatomic terminology. Torque

To use this website, you must agree to our. If you are running into a headwind this would be unhelpful. Follow through helps the following It can improve accuracy It can increase the power/strength/distance of throw It can help you keep balanced It can help prevent injury. ), (Modified from Neumann DA: Kinesiology of the musculoskeletal system: foundations for physical rehabilitation, ed 2, St Louis, 2010, Mosby, Figure 1-5. When throwing the discus in athletics you turn around in a sprinting back-to front movement to generate power. internal rotation Passive movements, on the other hand, are generated by sources other than muscular activation, such as gravity, the resistance of a stretched ligament, or a push from another person. "contentUrl": "https://slideplayer.com/slide/7353942/24/images/1/Mechanical+Principles.jpg", supports HTML5 video, Published byBritney Clark From Neumann DA: Kinesiology of the musculoskeletal system: foundations for physical rehabilitation, St Louis, 2002, Mosby, Table 1-2. Front sommersault "name": "Resistance Resistance can either been advantage or a disadvantage. Motion about the vertical or longitudinal axis of rotation occurs in the horizontal (or transverse) plane. "@type": "ImageObject", Describe the arthrokinematic principles of movement. (Modified from Neumann DA: Kinesiology of the musculoskeletal system: foundations for physical rehabilitation, ed 2, St Louis, 2010, Mosby, Figure 1-5.) However, if motion occurs out of the anatomic position, it is often described as occurring about the longitudinal axis; this axis courses through the shaft of the bone. For example when skiing you constantly adjust your dynamic balance as you travel over changing terrain in order to remain balanced. In pairs think of two Skills/techniques where you need to transfer your weight from one part of the body to the other. Log In or, (From Neumann DA: Kinesiology of the musculoskeletal system: foundations for physical rehabilitation, ed 2, St Louis, 2010, Mosby, Figure 1-2. 0000076451 00000 n Some skills and techniques require a single transfer of weight for example a javelin throw while others require a repeated transfer of weight for example running. 0000008282 00000 n Arthrokinematics Have a look at the rugby scrum. 0000011257 00000 n

Which direction are the team on the left applying the force. The anatomic position, illustrated in Figure 1-6, serves as a standard reference for anatomic descriptions, axis of rotation, and planes of motion. 0000005855 00000 n inversion If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Explain how muscular force vectors are used to describe movement. Looks like youve clipped this slide to already. Regardless of the type of body movement, a movement can be classified as either active or passive. Log In or Register to continue Consequently, the axis of rotation is always perpendicular to the plane of motion. Nearly all rotational movements such as internal and external rotation of the shoulder or hip and rotation of the trunk occur in the horizontal plane. external force A joint can have 1, 2, or 3 degrees of angular freedom, corresponding to the three cardinal planes (see the earlier section on terminology). To make this website work, we log user data and share it with processors. Shot putters use chalk dust to REDUCE FRICTION between the throwing hand and the shots so that the throw can be more easily completed. Newtons Third Law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Which direction does that cause them to move Now have a look at the person in the Kayak. Motions of the extremities can be further classified into internal and external rotation. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. What are the 3 types of hazards that HACCP regulates? Describe the common movements of the body. { Rotation In different activities you rotate (turn) in order to carry effective skills and techniques.

Can you think of another example of static balance and dynamic balance. arthrokinematics ), (From Neumann DA: Kinesiology of the musculoskeletal system: foundations for physical rehabilitation, ed 2, St Louis, 2010, Mosby, Figure 1-3. { Again in two\u2019s can you list skills \/techniques that require a single transfer of weight and ones which require a repeated transfer of weight.

Differences in the mass of the body will affect performance. Discuss single transfer of weight and repeated transfer of weight. For example when skiing you constantly adjust your dynamic balance as you travel over changing terrain in order to remain balanced. 0000007243 00000 n *s+kv&D. n_ix}|zjS#\Y3~WVnUWVD_qM\UP Hip abduction-adduction The thumb, for example, uses different terminology. The anterior-posterior axis of rotation is oriented in an anterior-posterior direction through the convex member of the joint and allows movement to occur in the frontal plane, for instance, abduction and adduction of the hip. 0000014898 00000 n Rotation describes the arc of movement of a body about an axis of rotation. 0000013636 00000 n

supine 0000015897 00000 n It is interesting to note, however, that movement or translation of the entire body is powered by muscles that rotate the limbs. By contrast. Analyze how muscular lines of pull produce specific biomechanical motions. Study Questions Body tension is also important when performing a balance Headstand- The gymnasts base of support is lower and her base is wider than the gymnast doing the handstand. Sprinter: The track creates a helpful resistance as you continue running. It is interesting to note, however, that movement or translation of the entire body is powered by muscles that rotate the limbs.

Balance and transfer. Inferior: Below, or toward the feet

insertion Rotation describes the movement of a bony segment (or segments) as it spins about its longitudinal axis of rotation. "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "https://slideplayer.com/slide/7353942/24/images/3/Stability+The+larger+your+base+of+support+and+the+lower+you+base+support+the+more+stable+you+are..jpg", { Think of other activities where resistance can be an advantage and disadvantage. Box 1-1 Axial rotation ", Line of Pull %PDF-1.3 % horizontal abduction "contentUrl": "https://slideplayer.com/slide/7353942/24/images/4/Transfer+of+weight+Transfer+of+weight+is+shifting+your+weight+from+one+body+part+to+another..jpg",

open-chain motion 0000005886 00000 n medial This can occur in a straight line (rectilinear motion), for example, sliding a book across a table, or in a curved line (curvilinear motion), such as the arc of a ball being tossed to a friend. As well as rotating around you can also rotate by turning head over heels. Figure 1-10 A, Rotation of the head and neck.

An activity such as walking results from forward translation of the bodys center of mass, thus the entire body. Module 2562 A.2.1 FORCE FORCE is push or pull the unit is the NEWTON (10 N is approx the weight of 1 kg) force changes the state of motion of an object.

A summary of these axes can be found in Table 1-1. internal force By contrast. Typically, these are called. Translation occurs when all parts of a body move in the same direction as every other part. Axis of Rotation Figure 1-2 illustrates rotation of the forearm around the axis of rotation of the elbow. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Force Newtons 3 rd Law -For every action there is an equal but opposite reaction When force is applied in one direction then. Vertical or longitudinal The medial-lateral axis of rotation allows motion to occur in the sagittal plane, for instance, flexion or extension of the elbow. radial deviation sagittal plane Figure 1-11 Circumduction of the wrist. Kinetics Assessment Of Posture. Explain how muscular force vectors are used to describe movement. A detailed review of the musculoskeletal system, including innervation, is presented as a background to the structural and functional concepts of normal and abnormal movement. If you are running into a headwind this would be unhelpful. Think of other activities where resistance can be an advantage and disadvantage. Additional Readings 0000012176 00000 n Definition of Balance: An individuals ability to control stability 2.

0000014641 00000 n Terminology Typically, these are called rotational movements and are seen in rotation of the trunk when twisting side-to-side or in internal and external rotation of the shoulder. A joint can have 1, 2, or 3 degrees of angular freedom, corresponding to the three cardinal planes (see the earlier section on terminology). Generally, Rotation describes the movement of a bony segment (or segments) as it spins about its longitudinal axis of rotation. Differentiate between osteokinematic and arthrokinematic movement. }, 8 The wrist, on the other hand, allows motion in two planes, so it is considered to have 2 degrees of freedom. 0000012396 00000 n Now have a look at the person in the Kayak. Figure 1-7 The right glenohumeral (shoulder) joint highlights the axes of rotation and associated planes of motion: Flexion and extension (green curved arrows) occur about a medial-lateral (ML) axis of rotation; abduction and adduction (purple curved arrows) occur about an anterior-posterior (AP) axis of rotation; and internal rotation and external rotation (blue curved arrows) occur about a vertical axis of rotation. This is part of completing a front somersault. Describe the three biomechanical lever systems, and explain their advantages and disadvantages. E.g. CREDIT EXTENSION: If speed is required then the greater the force applied the better.

Osteokinematics Shoulder internal-external rotation 0000012673 00000 n Forward and backward bending CREDIT EXTENSION: If speed is required then the greater the force applied the better. Nearly all abduction and adduction motions occur in the frontal plane. SlideShare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Sprinters use starting blocks, outdoor games players use studded boots to provide grip and RESSITANCE. Figure 1-3 A, Center of mass of the entire body. Posterior: Toward the back of the body Proximal: Closer to, or toward the torso "@type": "ImageObject", The discussions within this text are intended to provide insight and provoke thoughtful dialogue about commonly used therapeutic models and treatments. Rotation. Describe how force, torque, and levers affect biomechanical movement. 0000005801 00000 n "@type": "ImageObject", origin Typically, these are called rotational movements and are seen in rotation of the trunk when twisting side-to-side or in internal and external rotation of the shoulder. line of pull deep Origin: The proximal attachment of a muscle or ligament For example, when a clinician provides the force to move an individuals limb through various ranges of motion, this is considered a passive movementthus the common clinical term passive range of motion.