Italian is also used in administration and official documents in Vatican City. pl. harvcoltxt error: no target: CITEREFBrincat2005 (.
The Renaissance era, known as il Rinascimento in Italian, was seen as a time of rebirth, which is the literal meaning of both renaissance (from French) and rinascimento (Italian). From the late 19th to the mid-20th century, thousands of Italians settled in Argentina, Uruguay, Southern Brazil and Venezuela, as well as in Canada and the United States, where they formed a physical and cultural presence.  According to the Ethnologue, Lexical similarity is 89% with French, 87% with Catalan, 85% with Sardinian, 82% with Spanish, 80% with Portuguese, 78% with Ladin, 77% with Romanian.
Italian was also introduced to Somalia through colonialism and was the sole official language of administration and education during the colonial period but fell out of use after government, educational and economic infrastructure were destroyed in the Somali Civil War.
The standard Italian language has a poetic and literary origin in the writings of Tuscan and Sicilian writers of the 12th century, and, even though the grammar and core lexicon are basically unchanged from those used in Florence in the 13th century, the modern standard of the language was largely shaped by relatively recent events.
Mutual intelligibility with Italian varies widely, as it does with Romance languages in general. Preservation of most intertonic vowels (those between the stressed syllable and either the beginning or ending syllable). Zonova, Tatiana. All object pronouns have two forms: stressed and unstressed (clitics). The Commodilla catacomb inscription is also a similar case.
Italian has geminate, or double, consonants, which are distinguished by length and intensity.  In Venezuela, Italian is the most spoken language after Spanish and Portuguese, with around 200,000 speakers. An instance of neuter gender also exists in pronouns of the third person singular..  It used to be an official language in the former colonial areas of Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it still has a significant role in various sectors. ', thus assignment of gender is arbitrary in terms of form, enough so that terms may be identical but of distinct genders: fine meaning 'aim', 'purpose' is masculine, while fine meaning 'end, ending' (e.g.
Demonstratives in Italian are repeated before each noun, unlike in English..
 Italian was the official language of the Republic of Ragusa from 1492 to 1807. Tullio De Mauro, an Italian linguist, has asserted that in 1861 only 2.5% of the population of Italy could speak Standard Italian.
A large percentage of those who had emigrated also eventually returned to Italy, often more educated than when they had left. These nouns often, but not always, denote inanimates. In England, while the classical languages Latin and Greek were the first to be learned, Italian became the second most common modern language after French, a position it held until the late 18th century when it tended to be replaced by German. In some cases, colonies were established where variants of regional languages of Italy were used, and some continue to use this regional language. in Romance, Romanian and Portuguese), but it fails in cases such as Spanish-Portuguese or Spanish-Italian, as native speakers of either pairing can understand each other well if they choose to do so.
In the plural: gli is the masculine plural of lo and l'; i is the plural of il; and le is the plural of feminine la and l'.. Foreign cultures with which Italy engaged in peaceful relations with, such as trade, had no significant influence either. In the latter canton, however, it is only spoken by a small minority, in the Italian Grisons. In the Italian peninsula, as in most of Europe, most would instead speak a local vernacular. The letter x has become common in standard Italian with the prefix extra-, although (e)stra- is traditionally used; it is also common to use the Latin particle ex(-) to mean "former(ly)" as in: la mia ex ("my ex-girlfriend"), "Ex-Jugoslavia" ("Former Yugoslavia"). va bene "all right" is pronounced [vabbne] by a Roman (and by any standard Italian speaker), [vabene] by a Milanese (and by any speaker whose native dialect lies to the north of the La SpeziaRimini Line); a casa "at home" is [akkasa] for Roman, [akkasa] or [akkaza] for standard, [akaza] for Milanese and generally northern..
Phonetic  is common in Central and Southern Italy as an intervocalic allophone of /d/: gente [dnte] 'people' but la gente [lante] 'the people', ragione [raone] 'reason'. :21Although these are the first written records of Italian varieties separate from Latin, the spoken language had likely diverged long before the first written records appear, since those who were literate generally wrote in Latin even if they spoke other Romance varieties in person.
Italian is the third most spoken language in Switzerland (after German and French), though its use there has moderately declined since the 1970s.
Italian has a shallow orthography, meaning very regular spelling with an almost one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds. Italian is also spoken by large immigrant and expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia.
Full literary manifestations of the vernacular began to surface around the 13th century in the form of various religious texts and poetry.
Foreign conquerors of Italy that dominated different regions at different times left behind little to no influence on the dialects. Word order often has a lesser grammatical function in Italian than in English.  Estimates may differ according to sources. Italian is a null-subject language, so that nominative pronouns are usually absent, with subject indicated by verbal inflections (e.g. The incorporation into Italian of learned words from its own ancestor language, Latin, is another form of lexical borrowing through the influence of written language, scientific terminology and the liturgical language of the Church. -a (miglio 'mile, m. 'I see him, but not her').
The letters j, k, w, x, y are traditionally excluded, though they appear in loanwords such as jeans, whisky, taxi, xenofobo, xilofono. Venetian is either grouped with the rest of the Italo-Dalmatian or the Gallo-Italic languages, depending on the linguist. , Italian is widely taught in many schools around the world, but rarely as the first foreign language. The Italians who emigrated during the Italian diaspora beginning in 1861 were often of the uneducated lower class, and thus the emigration had the effect of increasing the percentage of literates, who often knew and understood the importance of Standard Italian, back home in Italy. pl. Unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants. Italian has three degrees for comparison of adjectives: positive, comparative, and superlative.. Italian has a seven-vowel system, consisting of /a, , e, i, , o, u/, as well as 23 consonants. The letter j appears in the first name Jacopo and in some Italian place-names, such as Bajardo, Bojano, Joppolo, Jerzu, Jesolo, Jesi, Ajaccio, among others, and in Mar Jonio, an alternative spelling of Mar Ionio (the Ionian Sea). This rule is not absolute, and some exceptions do exist.
Italian is a Romance language, a descendant of Vulgar Latin (colloquial spoken Latin).
The form changing adjectives "buono (good), bello (beautiful), grande (big), and santo (saint)" change in form when placed before different types of nouns.  Including Italian speakers in non-EU European countries (such as Switzerland, Albania and the United Kingdom) and on other continents, the total number of speakers is approximately 85 million. As Tuscan-derived Italian came to be used throughout Italy, features of local speech were naturally adopted, producing various versions of Regional Italian.
After the invention of the printing press in the fifteenth century, the number of printing presses in Italy grew rapidly and by the year 1500 reached a total of 56, the biggest number of printing presses in all of Europe.
pl. Compared with most other Romance languages, Italian has many inconsistent outcomes, where the same underlying sound produces different results in different words, e.g.
Italian), speakers of languages, or inhabitants of an area (e.g. After unification, a huge number of civil servants and soldiers recruited from all over the country introduced many more words and idioms from their home languagesciao is derived from the Venetian word s-cia[v]o ("slave", that is "your servant"), panettone comes from the Lombard word panetton, etc. Due to heavy Italian influence during the Italian colonial period, Italian is still understood by some in former colonies.  Italian is generally understood in Corsica by the population resident therein who speak Corsican, which is an Italo-Romance idiom similar to Tuscan.
The capital city of Eritrea, Asmara, still has several Italian schools, established during the colonial period.
According to some sources, Italian is the second most spoken language in Argentina after the official language of Spanish, although its number of speakers, mainly of the older generation, is decreasing.
Italian literature's first modern novel, I promessi sposi (The Betrothed) by Alessandro Manzoni, further defined the standard by "rinsing" his Milanese "in the waters of the Arno" (Florence's river), as he states in the preface to his 1840 edition.
Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical terminology and opera; numerous Italian words referring to music have become international terms taken into various languages worldwide. ', leggi 'laws, f.
Nevertheless, on the basis of accumulated differences in morphology, syntax, phonology, and to some extent lexicon, it is not difficult to identify that for the Romance varieties of Italy, the first extant written evidence of languages that can no longer be considered Latin comes from the ninth and tenth centuries C.E. This accounts for some of the most noticeable differences, as in the forms, Perhaps most noticeable is the total lack of, The letters c and g vary in pronunciation between, This page was last edited on 20 July 2022, at 23:45. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern period, most literate Italians were also literate in Latin, and thus they easily adopted Latin words into their writingand eventually speechin Italian.  The Albanian government has pushed to make Italian a compulsory second language in schools. Standard Italian is based on Tuscan, especially its Florentine dialect, and is therefore an Italo-Dalmatian language, a classification that includes most other central and southern Italian languages and the extinct Dalmatian. This discussion, known as questione della lingua (i. e., the problem of the language), ran through the Italian culture until the end of the 19th century, often linked to the political debate on achieving a united Italian state. ', fiumi 'rivers, m.
Italian stems from a literary language that is derived from the 13th-century speech of the city of Florence in the region of Tuscany, and has changed little in the last 700 years or so.
(2009). Those dialects now have considerable variety.
Italian is widely spoken in Malta, where nearly two-thirds of the population can speak it fluently.  Nevertheless, an Italian language media market does exist in the country. Although in all these examples the second form has fallen out of usage, the dimorphism is thought to reflect the several-hundred-year period during which Italian developed as a literary language divorced from any native-speaking population, with an origin in 12th/13th-century Tuscan but with many words borrowed from languages farther to the north, with different sound outcomes. '; fiume 'river, m. These written sources demonstrate certain vernacular characteristics and sometimes explicitly mention the use of the vernacular in Italy. Unlike English, nouns referring to languages (e.g. An important event that helped the diffusion of Italian was the conquest and occupation of Italy by Napoleon in the early 19th century (who was himself of Italian-Corsican descent).  Italian served as Malta's official language until 1934, when it was abolished by the British colonial administration amid strong local opposition.