Economy of Europe in an Age of Crisis, 16001750. As a result, they succeeded in circumnavigating Africa to reach Asia, and in crossing the Atlantic to reach the New World.
England and Holland were the most aggressive canal builders of Europe, most likely because their economies, and especially that of the Dutch, were heavily dependent on commerce and industry. D . Roads tended to follow waterways, and thus to meander. The best study of literacy and its spread in early modern England.
Letters frequently reached their recipients through informal carriers. "Guides de voyage et manuels pour marchands." Ozment, Steven. In the absence of a preexisting river or stream, however, early modern governments, in what would be called today a "public-private partnership" with entrepreneurs, financed impressive canal-building projects. In France, Colbert was again the moving force behind the expansion of France's road system. Merchants contracted on an individual basis with haulers, the majority of whom were peasants working part-time as carriers. This service spread throughout the Netherlands in the sixteenth century and became linked to wagon routes, thus bringing towns not reachable by water into the network. Dewald, Jonathan. The trip up the Seine from Rouen to Paris, which today takes one to two hours by train, could take anywhere from ten days to a month (going downstream from Paris to Rouen was usually faster, about three or four days). And England, like France, saw a similar rise in the speed of overland transport, so that a trip from London to Exeter that required eight to twelve days in the mid-seventeenth century took half that time in 1760. During the 9th plan period as per the government policy of promoting private sector participation in the transport sector, a cable-car project had been undertaken by the private sector from Kuringhat to Manakamana. There was altogether 23,209 km road up to FY 2011. Darnton, Robert. (June 21, 2022). If they did own a book, it was most likely to be religious, a Bible in Protestant countries, a prayer book or hagiography in Catholic ones. The air transport system was developed in the country with the establishment of Royal Nepal Airlines Corporation (RNAC) in 1958 A.D. Tribhuwan International Airport having its initial runway length of 6,600 feet was constructed with American assistance. Translated by Christopher Woodall. Balthasar Paumgartner often sent his letters to his wife Magdalena via a friend or fellow German merchant who happened to be traveling to Nuremberg, in return, no doubt, for performing the same service himself at other times. Still, the magnitude of that progress in the lives of ordinary people was not that great. Although canals are among, Transportation systems move goods and people around the world. Increasingly the printing press became a means to communicate information, less in the form of newspapers, which did not become common until the eighteenth century, than in the form of almanacs and gazettes filled with practical knowledge. On the other hand, Germany possessed by the end of the early modern period only three hundred miles of canals or canalized rivers, compared to the seven hundred miles constructed in England between 1600 and 1760 alone. Soon "night barges" were added, allowing passengers "Les routes des intendants." Journal of Economic History 44, no. Although literacy increased enormously during this period, most people, especially among the lower classes, possessed limited reading and writing skills and relied heavily on memory and speech for preserving and transmitting information. Beale, Philip. Nobles wrote for pleasure, as a way of developing richer inner lives, nurturing intimacy with close friends and family, and distinguishing themselves from the classes below them, who might be literate but rarely had the time or inclination to write for anything other than utilitarian purposes. The letter was central to the development of humanism, and most were written with the expectation that they would be read and discussed by a much wider audience than the intended recipient. The result was often a vicious circle, because bad transportation impeded the development of places such as grain-rich Sicily and Poland, which possessed resources but no way to get them to market efficiently. Poston, M. M., and H. J. Habakkuk, eds. Braudel, Fernand, and Ernest Labrousse, eds. Occupation, Business & Technology Education, Environment and Natural Resource Management, Human Resources and Human Development Indicator, Current Population Situation and Its Causes, Consequences and Remedies, Agricultural Finance and Agricultural Marketing, Meaning and Indicators of Economic Development, Economic Development, Its Indicator and Characteristics of Developing Nation, Derivation of Supply and Change in Supply, Factors causing Shift in Supply and Interaction between Demand Supply, Change In Demand and Reason Behind Downward Slopping Demand Curve, Need for Quantitative Analysis in Economics, Poverty - Characteristics, Causes and Remedy, Industry - Types, Their Importance and Problem, Public Finance, Public Revenue and Public Expenditure, Scarcity and Choice, Allocation of Resources and PPC, Micro & Macro and Positive & Normative Economics, Wealth and Welfare Definition of Economics. In his L'homme et la route en Europe occidentale au moyen ge et aux temps modernes, pp. Still the best overview of French transport in relation to the economy during the Old Regime. Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1980. In 1529 the first beurtveer (regulated transportation service) was established between the cities of Amsterdam and Hoorn. These towpath canals carried literally hundreds of thousands of passengers annually between Holland's major cities in the seventeenth century. De Vries, Jan. COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION. Therefore, air transport is the only alternative facilities to all parts of the country. Some important means of communication services in Nepal are as follows: The important role of transportation and communication can be explained as follows: Adhikari, Ramesh Prasad, Economics-XI, Asmita Pustak Prakashan, Kathmandu, Kanel, Navaraj et.al., Principles of Economics-XI, Buddha Prakashan, Kathmandu, Kharel, Khom Raj et.al., Economics In English Medium-XI, Sukunda Pustak Bhawan, Kathmandu, Role of transportation and communication in the economicdevelopment. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Transportation remained slow throughout the early modern period, although the improvements of the eighteenth century did speed things up. An unusual overview of urban hydrographic systems, including canals. Moreover, because most cities had no post offices, French provincial mail usually had to go to Paris before it reached its recipient, even though this entailed a significant delay.
The Dutch began first, and pioneered engineering techniques others later adopted. Paris, 1987. Communication is defined as the medium of exchanging news, views, and propagation of information. Examines the construction of the famous administrative roads the French government built in the eighteenth century, called the "Intendants' Roads" because they were under the purview of the intendants and designed to aid them in governing. "Communication and Transportation . Commercial centers like Amsterdam became nexuses of information, much of it in the form of letters. Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. 159171. Analyzes the ways in which illiterate Romans interacted with the world of writing, and the comparative powers of spoken and written words. Retrieved June 21, 2022 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/communication-and-transportation. Their letters evince the Paumgartners' tender regard for each other, although they are written in the formal style common to the early modern period. Canal 2nd ed. Paris, 1979. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). In Culture and Identity in Early Modern Europe (15001800): Essays in Honor of Natalie Zemon Davis, edited by Barbara B. Diefendorf and Carla Hesse, pp. It is ironic, therefore, in light of the revolutionary changes in oceanic travel and trade, that for most of the early modern period prior to the eighteenth century, rulers lacked either the will or the funds to revolutionize inland transportation, and the high price tag of the changes that were made is an indication of the enormous mobilization of resources that would have been required to do the job well. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. Au temps des malles-postes et des diligences. Translation of Lire et crire: L'alphabtisation des franais de Calvin Jules Ferry. In 1964, a new Kathmandu-Hetauda ropeway was begun. To be sure, travel speeds increased, but only for those who could afford the cost. Toulouse, 1968. Community smaller than society. These voyages of "discovery" opened up vast new Moreover, in the style of the ancient ars dictaminis or art of letter writing, in which Renaissance humanists consciously emulated great classical letter writers such as Cicero, scholars discussed philosophy while practicing rhetoric in lengthy, highly stylized letters. The Dutch began using locks on canals in the fifteenth century. A letter took about the same amount of timesix or seven weeksto reach Venice in 1765 as it had in 1500, although it is true that more efficient transport networks meant that it cost less for it to reach its destination. Moreover, in the 1740s the crown authorized the creation of a school, L'cole des Ingnieurs (School of engineers), capable of training the engineers needed to build the transportation routes the government intended to commission. Witt analyzes the role of the letter in the early development of humanist thought. In adverse conditions it moved much slower. Discusses the role of Amsterdam as a communications center disseminating business information. Merchandise circulated especially slowly, and even under the best conditions rarely moved more than twenty-five miles (forty kilometers) per day. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. The French and English approaches to the problem of funding well-engineered roads were quite different, however, with the French favoring much greater state control, in part because the primary motivation of French road building was to enhance the ability of the central government to communicate with, and control, the provinces, whereas the English left road building mostly in the hands of private entrepreneurs who received government concessions to build and maintain toll roads. The canal is uniformly sixand-a-half feet deep despite the fact that it rises to 620 feet above sea level. England's greatest innovation was the development of the turnpike system, wherein private investors received royal licenses Watt, Tessa. Poets and writers in other genres still composed their works with the assumption that they would be read or sung to their audiences. . . Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in 16th-Century Europe Revealed in the Letters of a Nuremberg Husband and Wife. The Danube provided an equally important route to the grain-producing regions of Central and Eastern Europe and, eventually, the Black Sea. In Voyager la Renaissance. Aristocratic Experience and the Origins of Modern Culture: France, 15701715. Brian Lewis Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Not surprisingly, German urban networks were tied closely to rivers. It is not by accident that Europe's most advanced economies at the end of the early modern period, England, France, and the Netherlands, also possessed the best transportation infrastructures, and those less advanced, Poland, Spain, and Germany, for example, lagged far behind. Contains a brief history of the French postal service and numerous illustrations of postal carriages. Germany was blessed with good rivers, the foremost of which, the Rhine, acted as a veritable pipeline connecting the North Sea and the Baltic with Switzerland. Reading and Writing: Literacy in France from Calvin to Jules Ferry. Moreover, waterways were not always reliable, since they were often non-navigable due to low water levels in summer, flooding or freezing in winter, and silting or obstructions in the waterway, such as sunken ships, watermills, fish weirs, and sandbars year round. Since, Nepal is a mountainous country, it faces many difficulties to develop road facility to all parts of the country. But they traveled much more slowly and laboriously, and at a higher cost, which makes the volume of movement against so many obstacles that much more impressive. Most of the improvements in the design of carriages and wagons were less for the sake of comfort than to make them faster and more maneuverable, although glass windows and suspension systems, first in the form of leather straps, and then springs, were introduced into public and private coaches in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Enterprising publishers began printing handbooks for merchants containing explanations of specialized techniques and business practices, such as double-entry bookkeeping, maritime insurance, and bills of exchange. The works listed below contain sections discussing various facets of these topics. Regions lacking in transport tended also to have underdeveloped economies and to be weaker politically and militarily than their neighbors. See also Communication, Scientific ; Literacy and Reading ; Shipping ; Travel and Travel Literature . A History of the Post in England from the Romans to the Stuarts. Examines another important facet of early modern travel, the necessity of obtaining passports and safe-conducts when crossing frontiers, and frequently in crossing internal boundaries as well. Renaissance Quarterly 35 (1982): 1635. By the same token, inland transport intersected with saltwater navigation, as many of the same small vessels that plied the coasts and carried coastal exports around Europe also sailed inland waterways. Rhetoric formed an intrinsic part of these letters because they were meant to be quasipublic documents, to be read aloud as well as silently. Their labor was seasonal, an inconvenience to be sure, but the plentiful supply of labor meant that competition kept rates fairly low. This afforded passengers and those freighting cargoes on these boats and barges an assurance that they and their goods would arrive in a dependable and timely fashion. Beginning in the Renaissance, writing developed as an important form of personal expression, especially among the erudite and the upper classes. markets and sources of labor and products that greatly boosted Europe's wealth and power. The spread of humanism north of the Alps in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and its inclusion in the education of the upper classes, meant that effective letter-writing skills became a necessity for well-bred ladies and gentlemen. Nordman, Daniel. The English too were aggressive canal builders, and also went about draining swamps and fens such as those of East Anglia by making cuts that were then used for canals. Cressy, David. And products imported from abroad had to be transshipped onto these smaller vessels or onto wagons for transport to their final destinations. Literacy and the Social Order: Reading and Writing in Tudor and Stuart England. Maintenance costs were rarely built into the money allocated for early modern road and canal building, and silting and wear and tear on the locks soon made many stretches of the Canal du Midi unserviceable. At present, Nepal has 51 airports including one international airport in Kathmandu. Cheap Print and Popular Piety 15501640. It took fifteen days to get to Paris from Bordeaux in 1660, and only five or six days to make the same trip in 1789. The main means of transportation used in Nepal are surface transport and air transport. In this the Reformation played an important role because the ability to read the Bible and the Psalms was essential to a Protestant education, so much so that Martin Luther and John Calvin alike, and most Protestant rulers, made a great although not wholly successful effort to expand educational opportunities for the masses to ensure that the population possessed at least minimal reading skills and a basic knowledge of the Bible. 4, The Economy of Expanding Europe in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, and Vol. The rest of Europe, including even the Dutch, lagged far behind the French and English in the quantity and quality of their roads. An example of the way in which sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European culture was still very much in transition from an oral to a written culture. "Communication and Transportation Paris, 1996. Although it is still in use today, the canal never lived up to expectations. Building waterways was an expensive undertaking, particularly in hilly regions where numerous locks were required. These two entertaining and instructive volumes contain excellent discussions of early modern communication and transport in terms both of economics and of everyday life. Translation of Les temps de l'eau: La cit, l'eau et les techniques. . The most popular form of cheap print for the masses produced in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was ballads, many of them updated editions of songs that had been around for centuries. It was an impressive engineering achievement when it was completed in 1691. Oceanic transport made the greatest leaps forward during this period. In general, nations with either a powerful, centralizing royal government, or a burgeoning mercantile class, or both, were most likely to build roads and waterways. ." Sizable companies specializing in water transport began to appear in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, although most merchants relied on individual haulers or ship captains or, in the case of coastal or transoceanic shipping, purchased their own ship or a share in a jointly owned vessel. Janakpur-Jaynagar railway which is 52 km long, constructed in 1936. There can be more than one community in a society. Ideally a natural waterway would already be present, which might be canalized (widened, deepened, or straightened in its route with locks added where needed). The voyage by coach and canal from Paris to Lyon fell from ten to eleven days in 1664 to about six days in 1760. Charbon, Paul. In the mid-twentieth century, the subject of "cleanliness" was a footnote to the triumphant history of the British, European, and Amer, Other Cities: "Writing and the Power of Speech: Notaries and Artisans in Baroque Rome." 4 (December 1984): 9851005. Princeton, 1997. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Europeans constructed ships capable of sailing the open seas, and navigational devices and techniques capable of guiding them on these long-distance voyages. Encyclopedia.com. Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. This Colbert and his successors found difficult to do and even more difficult to sustain. Discusses the circulation of information via a wide variety of media, from spoken gossip to newspaper, poems, and books. Towpaths were especially vital for canals or rivers in flat areas that lacked a strong current to carry the vessels. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1993. He desired a truly national and integrated transportation network linking the provinces of France to Paris. Most people and most information moved at the end of the Old Regime at a rate very similar to that of the Renaissance. Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1991. By the end of the Old Regime, England was second only to Holland in the number of canals built, despite the fact that England was much smaller than France, Spain, or Germany. Merchants needed to be able to write, read, and digest voluminous commercial correspondence. Encyclopedia.com. Yet writing also brought unforeseen and unsettling consequences to the lives of European elites, because they increasingly used letters not only to express ideas and information suitable for public consumption, but also to explore and articulate private musings and passions. Reprints of classical works also were popular. Iron tires affixed to carriage wheels improved durability but accelerated the deterioration of roads, which in turn helped to spur improvements such as cobblestone, graded crushed stone sealed with sand, and eventually paving. The volume of printed works available for purchase expanded considerably between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries, although most lower-class Europeans were lucky if they could afford cheap woodcuts, pamphlets, or broadsides, let alone a book. Histoire des transports publics et de poste du XVIIe au XIXe sicle. The schedules were published and enforced. There are very few works of early modern history devoted entirely to communication and transportation. Before the roads could be built, however, the state had to create a system to finance and administrate them. Postal services, wireless telephone, and e-mail are the means of personal communication and radio, television and newspaper are the means of mass communication. Finally, it should be noted that letters played a significant role in disseminating information during the scientific revolution, particularly before the various scientific academies began the practice of printing and distributing their members' papers and treatises. By the eighteenth century regularly scheduled stage services were available, permitting travelers to begin or end a journey at almost any stage along the route.
Translation of La correspondance: Les usages de la letters au XIXe sicle. The correspondence between Magdalena and Balthasar Paumgartner, a merchant couple living in sixteenth-century Nuremberg, discusses both business and personal concerns such as their own and their son's illnesses and family gossip. There are various means of transportation in the world. A thoughtful discussion of aristocratic culture and education, including the importance of letter writing. In fact, early modern postal services, while created to serve the needs of governments, mostly drew their clientele from the business community. Wagons got stuck up to their axles in mud since very few roads were paved or engineered with the latest techniques to keep water from seeping in and undermining the roadbed. The Spanish crown, for example, squandered the opportunity to invest the bonanza of wealth it drew from New World silver mines in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in building badly needed infrastructure to stimulate its economy at home. "Sauf-conduits et passeports en France la renaissance." By the seventeenth century the needs of government and business began to outstrip this informal system, however. Translation of Les structures du quotidian: Le possible et l'impossible and Les jeux de l'change. Due to the rugged physiography of Nepal, road transport gets an important place here. A total of 120 helipads has been constructed in the country. Much of the traffic on these waterways moved via towpaths, in which horses walking on a footpath that followed the waterway dragged barges from place to place. 181201. Jeannin, Pierre. The Dutch Rural Economy in the Golden Age, 15001700. to build and maintain roads. The most complete and authoritative study of the building of the Canal du Midi. there was no power able to prune the many tolls and duties cities along waterways had levied since the Middle Ages. Literacy also increased in Catholic countries, however, indicating that factors other than religion encouraged its spread. France built other canals in the early modern period, the most successful of which were those that, like the Canal de Briare, begun by Henry IV's minister the duc de Sully in 1605 and completed in 1640, were designed to link Paris with the everexpanding hinterland the great city required to feed its population. The Cambridge Economic History of Europe. Cohen, Elizabeth S. "Between Oral and Written Culture: The Social Meaning of an Illustrated Love Letter." Land routes had their own hazards, including the poor state of most roads, especially prior to the One result of this divergence was that whereas, then as now, the French transportation network converged often inconveniently on Paris, the English network served first and foremost the Translated by Sin Reynolds. Land transport was costly primarily because even the hardiest teams of oxen or horses could move far less than a barge. ." Important media of communication in Nepal are postal services, radio, telephone, teller, internet, e-mail, fax, television, and newspapers. Stay connected with Kullabs. Nussdorfer, Laurie. Similarly, most barge traffic was also in the hands of self-employed individuals who owned their own vessels and contracted on a job-by-job basis. Boats and their skippers were licensed to carry passengers and required to keep regular departure schedules regardless of whether they were fully loaded. The important innovation was the provision this system made for maintaining roads, in contrast to the French system, in which beautifully engineered roads were built, but then only sporadically maintained despite the use of the corve (forced labor) drawn from local peasant populations. 3001800. 145159. 2022
Correspondence: Models of Letter-Writing from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century. 103118. Aldershot, U.K., 1998. New Haven, 1974. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1997. Vol. Although slightly dated, both volumes contain excellent discussions of the role of transport in Europe's economic development. The Age of Water: The Urban Environment in the North of France, A . But in 2007 B.S., there was only 376 km of the road including 5 km of blacktopped. Air transport started in Nepal on a regular basis in 1953 A.D with three old aircraft which belonged to an Indian company. Paris, 1970. The means of transport available in Nepal are road transport, ropeway, cable car and air transport. Early modern communication took place in three main modes: spoken words, manuscript writingespecially lettersand print.