Can J Public Health. Most respondents did not drink excess alcohol (n=17,552, 64.6%) and did limited physical activity (n=23,264, 85.6%). The outcome, depression, was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression (CESD-10) rating scale. Drinking behavior was classified as non-binge drinker, occasional binge drinking, and regular binge drinking. PubMed Funding for the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is provided by the Government of Canada through the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) under grant reference: LSA 9447 and the Canada Foundation for Innovation. 2011;73(6):48390. 2013;21(8):17139. Bethel JW, Schenker MB. Lorenzo-Lpez L, Maseda A, de Labra C, Regueiro-Folgueira L, Rodrguez-Villamil JL, Milln-Calenti JC. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2015;17(10):78. regular chips, crackers), pastries (e.g. Article All analyses were completed using SPSS Version 22 [87]. Jatrana S, Pasupuleti SS, Richardson K. Nativity, duration of residence and chronic health conditions in Australia: do trends converge towards the native-born population? Demography. Reus-Pons M, Mulder CH, Kibele EUB, Janssen F. Differences in the health transition patterns of migrants and non-migrants aged 50 and older in southern and western Europe (2004-2015). Psychological distress among immigrants and visible minorities in Canada: a contextual analysis.

Benros ME, Waltoft BL, Nordentoft M, stergaard SD, Eaton WW, Krogh J, Mortensen PB. PubMed Associations between depression and different health determinants such as physical health and health behaviors also varied between men and women. PubMed Esme Fuller-Thomson. This may be due to women having heightened susceptibility to inflammation and autoimmune responses [132, 133] which can elevate risk for depression [134, 135]. Popul Stud (Camb). 2012;102(9):16303. Using weighted comprehensive cohort data from the baseline Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (n=27,162) of adults aged 4585, gender-specific binary logistic regression was conducted with the cross-sectional data using the following variables: 1) Depression (outcome) measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression (CESD-10) rating scale; 2) Immigration status: native-born, recent and mid-term (<20years), and long-term immigrants (20years); and 3) covariates: socioeconomic status, physical health (e.g., multi-morbidity), health behavior (e.g., substance use), over-nutrition (e.g., anthropometrics), under-nutrition (e.g., nutrition risk), and dietary intake. Further details about the study protocol can be found at: The standardized weights were derived by dividing the trimmed inflation weight of each unit used in the analysis by the (unweighted) average of the survey weights of all the analyzed units. 2016;16(1):10516. Menezes NM, Georgiades K, Boyle MH. 2013;10(5):1786814. 2006;61(5):61927. biddle nicholas historycentral ant bio Acta Psychiatr Scand. Abizanda P, Sinclair A, Barcons N, Lizan L, Rodriguez-Manas L. Costs of malnutrition in institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review. Can J Public Health. 2017. 2017 ACC, AHA, AAPA, ABC, ACPM, AGS, APhA, ASH, ASPC, NMA, PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in adults: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines. Promoting excellent mental health among middle-aged and older Canadians, both immigrants and non-immigrants, is an important priority among policymakers, health practitioners and researchers [38, 71, 72]. The relationships between depression and nutrition status indicators were both similar and dissimilar to other studies. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;38(23):J10919. Psychiatr Serv. 2015;81:295302. The final model was adjusted for all aforementioned variables (Model 7). 2010;44(15):104351. Binge drinking behavior was defined as men who had five or more drinks or women who had four or more drinks on the same occasion. Average blood pressure results were based on the average of five readings. Stafford M, Newbold BK, Ross NA. Alcohol and depression. malan apartheid daniel 1948 became african south president francois he national franois timetoast reformed pastor trained politician clergyman dutch until Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were derived from binary logistic regression to examine associations between immigrant status and depression while adjusting for the covariates. Pulses and nuts included legumes (beans, peas, lentils), nuts, seeds and peanut butter. Ethn Health. 2013;70(8):81220. Data are available from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging ( for researchers who meet the criteria for access to de-identified CLSA data. Chrysohoou C, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Das UN, Stefanadis C. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet attenuates inflammation and coagulation process in healthy adults: the ATTICA study. 2013;14(3):23244. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;66(11):12458. Schlemmer U, Frolich W, Prieto RM, Grases F. Phytate in foods and significance for humans: food sources, intake, processing, bioavailability, protective role and analysis. Total scores range between 0 to 30 and the cut-off score of 10 [75] was used to screen for depression. Our study provides further evidence of the gradient effect between income level and depression. The association between depression and education level seems to interact with working status. BMC Psychiatry. Another marker of lowered antioxidant defenses in that illness. Associations among diet, the gastrointestinal microbiota, and negative emotional states in adults. For men, significant association were also found for the anemia screen (2(2)=15.6, p<0.001) measurement, however, most of the men screened negative (n=10,448, 38.5% of the total sample).

Our results showed that middle-aged and older immigrant women who lived in Canada less than 20years have a higher likelihood of depression compared to both long-term immigrant women and native-born Canadian women. Lee J-H, Park S, Ryoo J-H, Oh C-M, Choi J-M, McIntyre R, Mansur R, Kim H, Hales S, Jung J. U-shaped relationship between depression and body mass index in the Korean adults. For women, lower levels of fruit and vegetable intakes (< 2 servings/day, OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.091.64, p<0.05), higher intakes of pure fruit juice (>1 serving/day, OR=1.80, 95% CI 1.242.59, p<0.05), average daily intakes of 1 or less of salty snacks (OR=1.19, 95% CI 1.041.36, p<0.05), and any chocolate bar consumption (ORs=1.151.66, ps<0.05) were significantly associated with depression. EFT, KMD, KK, HT, and LS developed the analysis plan. Calcium-containing food sources with high vitamin D content were based on average daily intakes of calcium-fortified milk (35% more calcium), whole and skimmed milk (3.25, 2, 1% milk fat), low-fat and regular cheeses; milk-based desserts; calcium-fortified beverages and juices. For Canadian immigrants, the acculturation process may be conducive to healthy dietary habits by reducing nutritional deficiencies in calcium, iron and vitamin D, but it may also contribute to poor health related to higher intakes of fat and sodium [38]. J Immigr Minor Health. Ali JS, McDermott S, Gravel RG. KMD, LS, YL & EFT wrote the first manuscript draft and all team members provided feedback. 2000;58:2416. CAS Mendelsohn C. Smoking and depression--a review. Among the demographic, social, and economic factors, significant associations were found for men and women by income, relationship status, and education level categories (ps<0.001). Sanchez-Villegas A, Delgado-Rodriguez M, Alonso A, Schlatter J, Lahortiga F, Majem LS, Martinez-Gonzalez MA. Everson SA, Maty SC, Lynch JW, Kaplan GA. Epidemiologic evidence for the relation between socioeconomic status and depression, obesity, and diabetes. Longitudinal research indicates that among those free from depression at baseline, individuals with a secondary school education or less have a much higher likelihood of developing a major depressive episode (MDE) than more educated working respondents. Wojcicki JM, Heyman MB. 2005;172(8):9958. Google Scholar. Depression in middle-aged and older adults is also associated with socioeconomic, physical, and nutritional factors and the relationships differ by sex. Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: report of a WHO expert consultation, Geneva, 811 December 2008. 2015;34:26. World Health Organization. Exposure to stress can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis leading to release of corticosteroids which bind to two types of receptors in the brain: the mineralocorticoid receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor. Age Ageing. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and mental health disorders: evidence from five waves of a national survey of Canadians. Onder G, Penninx BW, Cesari M, Bandinelli S, Lauretani F, Bartali B, Gori AM, Pahor M, Ferrucci L. Anemia is associated with depression in older adults: results from the InCHIANTI study. The odds of depression for demographic, social, and economic variables differed by gender(Please see Table 2). Effects of length of stay and language proficiency on health care experiences among immigrants in Canada and the United States. BMC Geriatr. Some individuals crave chocolate and its self-soothing qualities when they are depressed [100]. Differences between immigrants at various durations of residence and host population in all-cause mortality, Canada 1991-2006. For both men and women, most of the 12 dietary intake measures were significantly associated with depression. 2004;292(23):28607. 1 and 2) showed that for recent and mid-term immigrant women the likelihood of depression was at least two times that of Canadian-born women. Article Generally speaking, for women, more factors tended to be associated with depression. 2018;109(5-6):833-44. 2012;14(1):15665. Ferrari AJ, Charlson FJ, Norman RE, Patten SB, Freedman G, Murray CJ, Vos T, Whiteford HA. J Affect Disord. Among the unemployed, higher risk of major depression was found among those with a higher level of education [9]. 2012;13(3):30323. Depression in middle and older adulthood: the role of immigration, nutrition, and other determinants of health in the Canadian longitudinal study on aging. Bas-Sarmiento P, Saucedo-Moreno MJ, Fernandez-Gutierrez M, Poza-Mendez M. Mental health in immigrants versus native population: a systematic review of the literature. Prevalence and predictors of depression in populations of elderly: a review., Accessed 28 Feb 2019. To what extent does adjustment for a wide range of demographic, social, economic, and health-related characteristics attenuate the association between immigrant status and depression? KMD, LS, EFT and YL made the final revisions. Aging Ment Health. statement and However, the multivariable logistic regression results did not show this relationship. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011. Dannefer D. Cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the life course: cross-fertilizing age and social science theory. 2014;115:10310. 2009;49(4):299312. Mean years since immigration for the long-term group was 47years (Mean=47.1, SD12.1) with the average being slightly higher for males (Mean=47.3, SD12.1) compared to females (Mean=46.9, SD12.2). Jacka FN, Mykletun A, Berk M, Bjelland I, Tell GS. 2016;16(1):114. 2005;29(2):1438. 2003;93(7):105764. 2013;75(1):12741. Soc Sci Med. 2011;66(5):493500. Hum Psychopharm Clin. The healthy migrant effect on depression: variation over time? Fiber intake was based on consumption of high fiber breakfast cereals, whole wheat, bran, multigrain, and rye breads. Goel MS, McCarthy EP, Phillips RS, Wee CC. A study in social psychiatry. By using this website, you agree to our Management of depression in older adults: a review. Davison KM, DAndreamatteo C, Mitchell S, Vanderkooy P. The development of a national nutrition and mental health research agenda with comparison of priorities among diverse stakeholders. Torres L, Driscoll MW, Voell M. Discrimination, acculturation, acculturative stress, and Latino psychological distress: a moderated mediational model.

Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE Jr, Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, DePalma SM, Gidding S, Jamerson KA, Jones DW, et al. Raina PS, Wolfson C, Kirkland SA, Griffith LE, Oremus M, Patterson C, Tuokko H, Penning M, Balion CM, Hogan D. The Canadian longitudinal study on aging (CLSA). Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice. Additional risk factors for depression include substance use, a family history of psychiatric disorders [19, 20], presence of pain [21] and co-morbidities [22], and, for women in particular, high visceral adiposity [23]. This finding is consistent with longitudinal investigations of new immigrants which show increases in reported sadness and loneliness [29], but is inconsistent with cross-sectional studies that report lower levels of depressive symptoms when compared to native born Canadians [25,26,27,28]. Gender, income and immigration differences in depression in Canadian urban centres. In this study, older immigrant women were more susceptible to depression when compared to Canadian-born women and all men. 2015;70:6782. Studies of smoking behavior have indicated that in some immigrant subpopulations, particularly women, smoking rates increase after immigration [65, 66]. Correspondence to Sanders JB, Comijs HC, Bremmer MA, Deeg DJ, Beekman AT. Soc Sci Med. 2014;120:1009. 2012;17(12):1753. 2004;44(1):1528. 2015;7(8):636274. 2015;22(9):65567. Women who had least one health condition (ORs=1.273.01, ps<.05), chronic pain (OR=1.79 95% CI 1.601.99, p<0.001), or stage 1 hypertension (OR=1.31, 95% CI 1.131.51, p<0.001) had a higher likelihood of reporting depression. Depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and subsequent inflammation in patients with coronary heart disease: prospective findings from the heart and soul study.

Little is known about depression in middle-aged and older Canadians and how it is affected by health determinants, particularly immigrant status. PubMed Performance of the European working group on sarcopenia in older people algorithm in screening older adults for muscle mass assessment. Kingsbury M, Dupuis G, Jacka F, Roy-Gagnon MH, McMartin SE, Colman I. Soc Sci Med. Browning LM, Hsieh SD, Ashwell M. A systematic review of waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for the prediction of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: 05 could be a suitable global boundary value. J Affect Disord. 2019;219:21930. This association between immigrant status and depression among recent and mid-term immigrant women was consistently robust and not attenuated by a wide range of social, economic, and health-related determinants. Lancet Psychiatry. Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content: Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. 2014;16(1):2434. 2015;52(1):114. JAMA Psychiatry. Immigrating individuals may experience substantial stress associated with settling in a new country due to insufficient income [40], language barriers [41, 42], discrimination, cultural adaptation [43], reduced social support networks [44, 45], and a lack of recognition of their education and work experiences in the receiving countries [46]. Subedi RP, Rosenberg MW. De Maio FG. Longitudinal studies of older adults also indicate that experiencing pain is associated with depression [122]. For sources with low vitamin D content, most of the sample consumed some level of these (n=22,194, 81.7%) with significant associations indicated (ps<0.001). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Choi J, Joseph L, Pilote L. Obesity and C-reactive protein in various populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. In terms of health-related characteristics, the majority had at least one health condition (n=22,297, 82.1%), some type of hypertension or taking anti-hypertensive medication (n=17,285, 63.6%), and reported having no chronic pain (n=20,569, 75.7%). Ryu E, Chamberlain AM, Pendegraft RS, Petterson TM, Bobo WV, Pathak J. Quantifying the impact of chronic conditions on a diagnosis of major depressive disorder in adults: a cohort study using linked electronic medical records. Prim Health Care Res Dev. Kessler RC, Bromet EJ. The odds of depression among long-term immigrant women ranged from 1.12 (95% CI 0.991.27) controlling for demographic, social, and economic factors (Model 1), to 1.19 (95% CI 1.041.35) after full adjustments. For the age, significant association was only found among men (p<0.001). Chapter Setia MS, Quesnel-Vallee A, Abrahamowicz M, Tousignant P, Lynch J. Douketis JD, Paradis G, Keller H, Martineau C. Canadian guidelines for body weight classification in adults: application in clinical practice to screen for overweight and obesity and to assess disease risk. Glob Public Health. 2022 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. On a global basis, depressive disorders are estimated to impact one in every 23 people [1]. Wang JL, Schmitz N, Dewa CS. 2011;57(4):42841. The influence of immigrant status and concentration on psychiatric disorder in Canada: a multi-level analysis.