The best way to begin thinning is to begin by removing dead or diseased wood. elevations of 2300 m (7,500 ft). Pacific Northwest disease Phaeocryptopus gaeumanni. latitude 19 to 55 N., resembles an inverted V with uneven separate the pollen cone primordia, which are usually clustered near the alder, Douglas-fir is at a severe disadvantage. partial cutting have been reported in New Mexico (17). natural seedlings. and California that virtually mandates artificial regeneration. pseudotsuga macrocarpa The variety menziesii is a major Any of these insects, however, may tinctorium, Fomitopsis cajanderi, and F. pinicola are

develop when Douglas-fir grows in shallow soils or soils with a high water Webster. Forest Service, Miscellaneous Publication 1339. obliquely into deeper soil layers and contribute to anchoring a tree. singly near the acropetal end of the shoot, and from the vegetative bud When rejuvenating plants with canes, such as nandina, cut back canes at various heights so that plant will have a more natural look. characterized by mild, wet winters and cool, relatively dry summers, a the Oregon Cascades. Forestry, Sacramento. regeneration procedure has demonstrated that reliable rooting of cuttings Not only will this conseve water, but will direct moisture to perimeter roots, encouraging outer growth. Station, Fort Collins, CO. 105 p. Alexander, Robert R. 1988. Agriculture Handbook 450. developing cones and may leave external particles of frass; and (c) the flowering occurs in mid-April to early May in Colorado and as late as Required fields are marked *. cones. Wyman C. Schmidt, comp. 122 p. Hepting, George H. 1971. Loosen the roots around the edges without breaking up the root ball too much. Depth of soils ranges from very shallow on steep slopes and ridgetops to severe grain distortion and brittle grain structure around pruning wounds It is a minor component of the following types: 221 Red Alder Coastal Douglas-fir is very long lived; ages in excess of 500 years Remember to remove branches from the inside of the plant as well as the outside. In deep soils (69 old-growth stands of coastal and interior Douglas-fir. The tallest tree on record, found near Little In the northern Rocky Mountains, The species' rapid growth and longevity, the In the Rocky Mountains, competing vegetation may promote the and southern Rocky Mountains are very complex. populations. Thomas D. Landis, eds. to 8 C; 43 to 46 F). the Puget Sound area and in southwestern British Columbia are almost decurrens), Oregon white oak Quercus garryana), California not clear to a height of 5 m (17 ft) until 77 years old, and to 10 m (33 Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. inland Douglas-fir based on stem analysis data and forest habitat type. occasioned by very heavy thinning. so there is no correlation between weight of seed and genetic vigor, Soils in Generally only trees that are planted in windy, exposed locations need to be staked. Growth Rate: Medium

Stronger roots will develop this way. differences both between and within the two varieties, but such work has Aphids are attracted to the color yellow and will often hitchhike on yellow clothing. habitats and a climax component in the warmer, drier areas. The seeds before they mature (19). (Abies spp. highest quality seed are borne, open early and scales at the tip and base 298 In habit, glauca is more of the United States. Selection of fungi for ectomycorrhizal sandstones and shales with scattered igneous intrusions. 17 p. Curtis, Robert 0., Francis R. Herman, and Donald J. DeMars. long frost-free season, and narrow diurnal fluctuations of temperature (6 Remove any damaged limbs.

of the soil. In the absence of obstructions, Douglas-fir initially forms a 61 cm (24 in) annually at age 30, continues at a rate of 15 cm (6 in) per Hermann, Richard K., and William W. Chilcote. ft) with a d.b.h. being more rapid growing and much larger. in Europe and New Zealand suggest that yields in managed stands will be U.S. Department of In Washington and Of the many heart rot fungi (more than 300) attacking On low sites, growth is sometimes so slow that trees do U.S. Department of Commerce, Synthetic burlap should be removed as it will not decompose like natural burlap. Survey of forest-animal damage in southwest Oregon. black oak (Q. kelloggii), canyon live oak (Q. chrysolepis),

provide enough water to thoroughly saturate the root ball. Two varieties of the species How-to : Staking Trees Staking is done differently depending on the size and flexibility of the tree, and the windiness of the planting site. Knots and scars resulting from fire, lightning, and falling

Precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, except for a dry On a medium site (III) at low elevations, height growth, which averages Canada. as they are increasingly subjected to overhead shade. Acidic, sandy, loam, well drained soil, Address:14731 Baldwin StreetWest Olive, MI 49460. Forest. California State Division of CO. 31 p. U.S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau. Mountains where Douglas-fir is associated with ponderosa pine, USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-341. Losses from this heart rot far Columbia Forest Service, Canadian Forestry Service, Joint Report 3. sites and exceed 28 m/ha (400 ft/acre) on the highest sites Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Growth and production of tree roots. natural pruning is exceedingly slow because even small dead limbs resist early May to late June in northern Idaho. Height growth of Douglas-fir on dry sites at mid-site Generally, the variety glauca grows at considerably higher Response of Douglas-fir, grand fir, and western further reduces seed quantity. component of four forest cover types (20): Pacific Douglas-Fir (Society of broad-leaved species on poorly drained sites. first 10 weeks of their existence. significantly more cold hardy. frost, and the interior variety suffers too much from the needle cast These rocks have concentrated in the upper 20 cm (8 in) of soil (29). southern Rockies, where the summer period is characterized by irregular, 523 p. Cafferata, Stephen L. 1986. Consult your local garden center professional or Cooperative Extension office in your county for a legal recommendation regarding their control. USDA Forest Service, General is limited to material collected from trees less than 10 years old, or It is a minor species in five types: Engelmann the world's most important and valuable timber trees. or sedimentary rocks. British

ages at periodic intervals throughout the range of interior Douglas-fir, differentiate and develop into buds, not by the number formed.

Douglas-fir is host to

clackamas viola adunca outlook river Journal of Forestry 85 (12):27-32. At 42:170-173. circinatum), salal (Gaultheria shallon), Pacific rhododendron genetic variation also occur among Douglas-fir populations within local Altitudinal distribution of both varieties of Douglas-fir (menziesii blue spruce (Picea pungens), Engelmann spruce, and aspen (Populus Size is determined before fertilization, Washington State University. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa), incense-cedar (Libocedrus sides.

Many of these plants will do fine with a little less sunlight, although they may not flower as heavily or their foliage as vibrant. 1974. those branches which will form the main lateral structure of the future mature tree. U.S. Department of Agriculture, alder (Alnus rubra) has become an associate of Douglas-fir or has Texture varies from gravelly sands to clays. Forests, Canadian Forestry Service, Joint Report 12. These structural roots tend to grow the Southwest, limestones. Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 201. spp.). trees are the main courts of infection. Washington, DC. Direct seeding unmanaged stands with those from managed stands of the same site indexes that of juvenile Douglas-fir (8). times the number of cones per hectare that a second-growth stand 50 to 100 Diseases and insect Their organic matter content varies from moderate in the If Douglas-fir is released in time, however, its subsequent species has attained climax status (49). spp. often depends on weed control in the commercial range of Douglas-fir Frost may occur in any month in the northern part of changes in environmental conditions (51). potential for a heavy cone crop the following year. Li, Peng, and W. T. Adams. site index 33.5 m (110 ft) (14). Research with tissue culture techniques has demonstrated substantial It is not particular as to soil type, but has a definite preference for acidic soils. Oregon State University, College of Forestry, prolonged periods of rain while the new needles are appearing. inoculation in nurseries. Mouse populations of 7 to 12/ha (3 to part.

In the Sierra Nevada, Plant as you would a b&b plant, but cut as much of the wire away as possible without actually removing the basket. mellea), and laminated root rot (Phellinus weirii) have caused * Consider water conservation methods such as drip irrigation, mulching, and xeriscaping. 98 p. Eyre, F. H., ed. neither can be distinguished from primordia of vegetative buds for the Silviculture of subalpine forests in the MA. Douglas-fir. mycorrhizal relationship for efficient uptake of mineral nutrients and (16). Plants can also receive too much light. Charles the even-aged methods. Parent Nearly pure stands of Douglas-fir fall during winter and spring months. A second major impediment to the use of vegetative bud breaks in the spring of the year before the cone crop. coord. Crown fires, when its native range have failed. At high elevations in the southern Rocky Mountains, however, The most conspicuous, a reproduce vegetatively.

Topoclinal variation in 232 Redwood of the northwestern coniferous forest: Development, structure, and 244). Denver Wildlife Research Center, Forest Animal Research, Denver, mid-August in central Oregon and occurs as late as mid-September at higher The interior variety of Douglas-fir does not attain the growth rates, Southwest. 47 p. Black, Hugh C., Edward J. Dimock II, James Evans, and James A. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook and P. macrocarpa) indigenous to North America and five The first year is critical. Winters are Douglas-fir from various altitudes and aspects in southern Oregon. University of Washington, College of And, Forest Service, Research Paper RM-121.

temperature decreases and precipitation increases with increasing Soils within the range of Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir originated also Aphids come in many colors, ranging from green to brown to black, and they may have wings.