In Nevada, the white population share dropped from 65% in 2000 to 54% in 2010, then to 46% in 2020 (download Table C). The 2020 census shows Black Americans moving, in huge numbers, out of their longtime homes in Northern and Western cities, and resettling in smaller cities, the suburbs and in a twist on the Great Migration of the 20th century the South. On a recent November afternoon, Roderick Sawyer, who narrowly won his fathers old City Council seat in 2011, walked past block after block of vacant lots, pointing out the empty homes and apartment buildings whose gutted frames were overgrown by weeds, exposing themselves to Chicagos notorious weather. While previously released 2020 census results indicated a marked slowdown in national population growth, the new release shows that both slow growth and increased diversity are particularly evident among the young. Much of the citys public housing consisted of overcrowded high rises like the notorious Cabrini-Green and the Robert Taylor Homes, which were infested with rats and cockroaches and rife with gang activity. The 2010-to-2020 loss of over 1 million youths contrasts with gains in that population during the previous two decades. The plan includes transforming vacant lots and rundown buildings into green spaces, grocery stores, streetscapes and affordable housing. Places like Englewood that saw some of the highest number of homicides in the past two decades 467 in that neighborhood alone have also had the largest outflow of Black residents, according to a POLITICO analysis of Chicago Police Department data. I remember 10 years ago, I walked the ward and could count on one hand how many Latino families are here. These are among the states that now serve as origins for the reverse migration back to the South. The handful of the citys neighborhoods that grew their Black populations all had far fewer killings. Life got even worse on the block. So it is not surprising that the growth rates of some racial and ethnic groups also declined compared to the previous decade. poblacion handelsabkommen worldatlas penduduk ledakan populations aatlas Yet, most states gained Latino or Hispanic, Black, and Asian American residents (download Table D). Theyre more than welcome to add to that cultural diversity and maybe then theyll learn something about Black people and the Black experience.. By 2008, Butler was ready to leave. The decennial census is the gold standard for providing definitive statistics about the nations population. You would never have dumped disparate people in white communities.. In 1980, about 40 percent of the citys total population was Black one of the countrys most formidable concentrations of Black business and political power. Like a tide going out, it has left relics of decades of decline: more abandoned buildings, shuttered schools and boarded-up storefronts.

The new census data shows declining white population shares are pervasive across the nation. Illustration by Beth Suzanna | Photos by Patrick Cavan Brown for Politico Magazine, By Shia Kapos, Juan Perez Jr., Renuka Rayasam and Ming Li. Fewer births and more deaths resulted in a natural decrease (more deaths than births) for the 2010s decade, even before the COVID-19 pandemic. Chicagos mapping fight is more than just a turf battle. On the citys West Side another area riddled with violence the Rev. Chicagos ward map battle is playing out at the state and congressional levels, too. Among all states plus Washington, D.C., Latino or Hispanic Americans contributed to half or more of 2010-to-2020 gains in 22 of them (download Table B).

Houses started falling into disrepair, thanks to disinvestment. They want to try to stick it out, said Butler, whose Twitter handle is @mrs_englewood. The dynamics of who has power and influence are changing not just in Its about who controls the future of the city. Chicago and neighborhoods like Englewood offer perhaps the most extreme example of a demographic upheaval reshaping power in cities across the country. A century-old firehouse in Englewood will become a culinary center and business hub. Thus, they emphasize the importance of different racial and ethnic group populations in accounting for each areas growth or decline. POLITICOs The Recast will explore how cities are on how politics are conducted and policy is made. In 2002, Butler was ready to lay down her own roots and purchased a home not far from this spot. The 2020 census shows that half of the youth population in 21 states and over two-fifths of the youth population in an additional eight are people of color. These groups have not only stemmed a sharp decline in the youth population but, as they age, will be driving most of the growth in the nations labor force. Moreover, the 2020 census shows that six states and Washington, D.C. are minority-white, with both Maryland and Nevada achieving that status since 2010. Asiaha Butler could have been one of the ones who left. Stay Current with Brookings Research and Events, The past decade saw slower growth and white population loss, More than two-fifths of Americans now identify as people of color, Population gains and losses varied across states and regions, The youth population declined in 27 states and the nation as a whole, People of color comprise over half of the nations youth, Chronicling the diversity of today and tomorrow, The 2010s saw the lowest population growth in US history, new census estimates show, Just before COVID-19, American migration hit a 73-year low, All recent US population growth comes from people of color, new census estimates show, Big cities saw historic population losses while suburban growth declined during the pandemic, Growth, diversity, segregation, and aging in Americas largest metropolitan areas: A 2020 census portrait, Economic disparities in the Washington, D.C. metro region provide opportunities for policy action. Wells, Jesse Jackson and Barack and Michelle Obama. After Chicagos City Council failed to come to a compromise last week, the Black and Latino caucuses are gearing up for what could be a bitter and expensive referendum that would allow voters to make the final call, possibly prolonging the fight into May, before the June primary. Also, 27 of the 100 largest metropolitan areas have minority-white populations, including Dallas; Orlando, Fla.; Atlanta; Austin, Texas; New Orleans; and Sacramento, Calif., which reached this status in 2020. Asiaha Butler at the entrance to the neighborhood community garden on Nov. 17, 2021. In West Englewood, youre seeing the race line moving further East as Latinos are buying cheap houses and land. States that saw gains in white residents are almost exclusively located in the Sun Belt, led by Utah, Colorado, and Florida. The Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, which is also keeping a close watch on Chicagos ward map fight, said state lawmakers diluted Latino representation in the statehouse and filed a lawsuit against the state saying the map is discriminatory. Now that trickle is a flood. Gunfire rang out nearly every day. While the Black population shrunk 33 percent since 2010 (from 34,178 and 22,912 in 2020), the Latino population is skyrocketing. But its also a story about what happens to a neighborhood when people decide to give up and leave and how that reshapes the city around it. What you knew, what you grew up with, what you could relate to, no longer exists, Butler said. The racial diversity of the nations youth population is well established nationally and expanding across the country. Raymond A. Lopez, elected alderman of the 15th Ward in 2015, is the first openly gay Mexican-American to hold public office in Illinois. Boundary battles are an entrenched part of politicking in Illinois as they are across the country. White population declines were pervasive across large parts of the nation, including 61 of the 100 largest metropolitan areas; 196 of the 319 cities over 100,000 population; and 2,458 of the nations 3,100-plus counties. But the Black and Latino caucuses agree on one thing: Its also time to create an Asian-focused ward given that the citys Asian population has increased to nearly 7 percent in the past 10 years. Butlers mother once worked in the bustling commercial strip that Whole Foods had promised to revive. The mayor, a former prosecutor who for years handled redistricting cases in the courts, said, the most important thing for me is not having districts or wards where there is zero competition. Lightfoot added: Nobody should be guaranteed a seat for life., Were not going to get beyond [being] the most segregated city in the country if we dont start thinking about engaging with our residents, she said, and really, really rethinking the compact between government and the people in a very different way.. Lightfoot, as well as other Black political leaders like Rush and Rep. Danny Davis (D-Ill.), believes its possible to attract more Black middle-class and working-class people back to the city preserving an important legacy and keeping its foundation as a center of Black political power. What this means is that youths comprise a demographically smaller share of the population while the overall population is aging. (Washington, D.C., where white population growth dominated, differs from these.)

The largest losses occurred in Illinois, California, Michigan, and New York. The one Sun Belt exception is California, another urbanized state, which led all others in white population losses. Between 2010 and 2020, the nations under-age-18 population registered an absolute decline of more than 1 million. Bottom Right: Duke Ellington, a famous jazz musician, poses with his piano at the KFG Radio Studio. And it was a true power base, a center of political gravity: Sawyer launched his political career near here, in the 6th Ward of Chicagos City Council. Because immigrants and their U.S.-born children, together, are younger than the rest of the population, recent decades immigration from Latin America, Asia, and elsewhere served to bolster the size of the nations youth population. But there were signs of change, even then. Over the 2010-to-2020 decade, the white population share declined in all 50 states (though not Washington, D.C.) with marked declines in several. Map 1: Growth and declines in state under age 18 populations, 2010-2020. Latinos now make up nearly a fifth of the neighborhood and their numbers are growing. A good example is California, which led the nation in white population losses (1.2 million), but benefitted from large Latino or Hispanic gains (1.5 million) and Asian American gains (1.2 million). For much of the 20th century, Chicago was the mecca for many of the 6 million African American people fleeing the Jim Crow South during the Great Migration. The mayor says, and data backs her up, that many African Americans are leaving Chicago to go just over the border to Indiana. Is it possible to create multiracial coalitions? Bottom Left: Bessie Smith 1936. In 1980, white residents comprised almost 80% of the national population, with Black residents accounting for 11.5%, and Latino or Hispanic residents at 6.4%. By 1980, the nearly 1.2 million Black people living in Chi-town had reshaped it into a place where Black businesses, culture and entertainment thrived. Some residents became millionaires, forming companies like Ebony/Jet and Johnson Products, businesses that became fixtures of Black American life. Back in the day, the city was the engine driving the Great Migration, the epicenter for Black hope and aspirations. Because the vast majority of states also show losses in their Black and American Indian and Alaska Native youth populations, youth gains tend to come largely from Latino or Hispanic youth, Asian American youth, or persons identifying as two or more races. If one challenge for Chicagos power structure is managing this demographic change, theres another set of challenges for people with a different, maybe quixotic goal: Stopping the outflow. One diversity milestone that was achieved with the 2020 census numbers is that a substantial plurality (more than 40%) of Americans now identify as one or more racial and ethnic groups. In spite of the vagaries of the redistricting process, weve got to find a way to meet in the middle, she told POLITICO. Latino council members, armed with fresh census data showing its population is up 5 percent and the Black population is down nearly 10 percent, filed a map with the city clerks office last week that includes 15 Latino wards one more than it has now and two fewer Black majority wards. In several southern states ranging from Louisiana to Virginia, Black youths make up the largest nonwhite share. The rise of youths of color is a key element of the changing demographics of Americas under-age-18 population. The first release of race-ethnic statistics from the 2020 census makes plain that Americas diversity explosion is continuing, albeit in the context of slower national growth, especially among the youth. Chicagos Black exodus, and the messy push and pull for power on the City Council, hold some important insights for the rest of the country as we navigate massive demographic shifts. In sheer numbers, Chicagos outflow has been particularly dramatic. But she herself was nearly part of the exodus. Alderman Jason Ervin, who heads the City Councils Black Caucus, takes issue with his Latino colleagues, who he sees as trying to squeeze out Black people from the City Council. Jesse Jacksons 1988 presidential campaign. While Illinois lost population overall and a subsequent congressional seat even outside of Chicago, the state saw its Latino population rise. Chicagos Black-majority neighborhoods nurtured not only countless families, but also towering figures of American history: Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Bessie Smith, Ida B. If the city fails again, she said, Chicagos Black population will continue to decline. This is consistent with the recent history of Black migration patterns toward prosperous southern states, countering the great migration of African Americans out of the South in the first half of the 20th century. Englewoods descent from a boomtown to a ghost town is a story with many causes, from government neglect to the loss of manufacturing jobs. For many voters, in a city facing inevitable demographic change, the question is whether Black and Latino leaders can form meaningful coalitions that bring investment, better schools and less violence to their communities or whether they keep Chicago politics rooted in the realm of spectator sport. Source: William H. Frey analysis of 2020 U.S. decennial census. As discussed above, 35 states lost white population over this period.

explore how cities are experiencing changes in Black populations, She recounted her story as she sipped tea on the sun-soaked patio of a freshly built Starbucks across a parking lot from a Whole Foods a suburban style marketplace that looked nothing like the rest of Englewood, but instead has become a symbol of another broken promise. Ira Acree said.

And just a few weeks ago, the mayor unveiled $126 million for development projects in the West Sides Humboldt Park neighborhood and another in South Shore, a predominantly Black, middle-class neighborhood. The nations 2010-to-2020 growth rate of 7.4% was lower than any decade since the 1930s. Lightfoot told POLITICO in an interview that she opposes gerrymandering that protects incumbents, and she has threatened to veto the first draft of the map supported by the Black Caucus because it protected an incumbent white alderman under federal indictment. Its illegal, he said, referring to the Voting Rights Act. While these groups fluctuated over the past 40 years, either upward (for Latino or Hispanic and Asian American populations) or downward (for the white population), the Black share of the population remained relatively constant. The sight of children playing in the dirt of a vacant lot outside her window one day, she said, inspired her to abandon the family exit plan and recommit to building back her neighborhood. Note: Percent 2010-2020 growth of persons under age 18. Despite the slow national growth in the 2010s decade, there was wide variation in gains across states for different racial and ethnic groups. experiencing changes in Black populations, whats sparking the These statistics, released as part of the Census Bureaus redistricting file, reveal variations in such patterns across states. The delay in drawing boundary lines means the council will hold public hearings, which is what Mayor Lori Lightfoot has been calling for throughout the process. Chicago Mayor Lori Lightfoot sits in the ceremony room of her office in City Hall on Nov. 16, 2021. A moment of clarity persuaded Butler to stay. This city is run by a machine, Butler said. People in Chicago feel that an alderman, or alderwoman, is more important than a state representative, Rep. Jesus Chuy Garcia (D-Ill.) said between votes in the U.S. Capitol, as he looked out from a balcony toward the Library of Congress and his office on a recent golden autumn afternoon. Meanwhile, also on the South Side, construction is underway on the Obama Presidential Center, a project the city and the Obamas hope will reinvigorate the area. How do you get people to stay or to come back? But the losses were also driven by a series of destabilizing events: the loss of manufacturing jobs, the demolition of public housing, a housing bubble, endemic gun violence and the closure of public schools. Rival ward maps have been pitched, each cementing Black or Latino power for the next decade amid the citys shifting demographics. Where others see displacement and population loss, Lightfoot sees possibility. And Lightfoot proposed, and the City Council approved, a guaranteed basic income pilot program that will provide monthly payments of $500 to 5,000 low-income residents for one year, making it the largest such project in the country. Rather than building a bold new coalition of united Black and brown leaders, the council is defined by the argument between them. Hit us up at Security cameras on the wall of the local Planned Parenthood, where a mural of Englewood has been painted.

At the other end of the spectrum are seven states and Washington, D.C. which registered losses in Black residents. And this population is projected to further decline for decades to come. Thats an opportunity to think of a strategy to bring people back, she said.