The assault fails, and d'Estaing and the fleet sail for France before the hurricane season begins. Some slaves represent themselves as free, while others offer themselves as servants to French and American officers. At the close of the War, Burgoyne's army has dwindled to a mere 1,500 due to escapes, desertions, but most significantly to the number of the troops deciding to stay and settle in America. British forces under Major General Vaughn begin their return back down the Hudson River to New York City, and in early November they evacuate the Highlands and the forts they have captured there. This so angers southern militia that they quickly raise a force and brutally defeat Ferguson and his troops. He writes Congress about the engagement at Springfield and to General Robert Howe with instructions on safeguarding West Point. The army is often ill-supplied and sometimes starving. A British fleet leaves New York harbor to come to the aid of Cornwallis in Virginia. The French government assembles troops and another fleet for a return to North America. By mid-December, he is joined by Horatio Gates, John Sullivan, and their Continental Army forces. Fort Lee, on the west side, is abandoned by the Americans two days later. Washington sends six brigades ahead and on June 21 he crosses the Delaware River with the rest of the army. George Washington to the Inhabitants of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, February 18, 1778. Lincoln again refuses and the next evening, after further summons by Clinton, the army, according to German mercenary for the British, Captain Johann von Ewald, "shouted 'Hurrah' three times," opened fire, and all the city's church bells rang out in a seeming frenzy of futile resistance. Montgomery has recently taken Montreal and has replaced Philip Schuyler, then weakened by illness, as commander of the northern army. Washington sharply disagrees and defends the actions of Boston's patriots. George Washington to Congress, September 26 | George Washington to George Clinton, September 26, 1780 | George Washington, General Orders, September 26, 1780 | George Washington to John Laurens, October 13, 1780, Washington writes General Anthony Wayne about depredations on the civilian populace by the Continental army. Howe forms a court martial that sentences three leaders to be shot by twelve of their fellow mutineers. George Washington to Congress, June 25, 1780 | George Washington to Robert Howe, June 25, 1780. George Washington to Anthony Wayne, November 27, 1780 | George Washington, General Orders, November 6, 1780. Congress directs Washington to respond to British, Indian, and loyalist attacks on frontier settlements in New York and Pennsylvania. From now on, Washington begins to employ local militia units in this manner more often. Washington writes governor of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson, December 28, 1780, in support of Clark's efforts to take Fort Detroit. Washington responds heatedly, citing depredations by the British in Charles Town, Massachusetts, which was burned at the beginning of the war, and of other instances. Washington is forced to retreat. George Washington to Falmouth, Maine, Safety Committee, October 24, 1775. The one-day battle is fought to a stalemate, both armies exhausted by the day's unusual heat. Fairfax Resolves. Having sealed the American army in the city, on May 8 Clinton sends another summons to surrender. In his September 17 general orders, Washington praises the officers and soldiers, noting the contrast to the "Behavior of Yesterday." Washington makes his acceptance speech in Congress. On June 18, 1776, Arnold will be the last to retreat from Canada and the still undefeated city of Montreal, then commanded by Sir Guy Carleton. The Marquis de Lafayette arrives in Philadelphia from France to offer his services to the American cause.

Late in 1778, the Commission returns to England. Address to the Inhabitants of Canada, September 6, 1775, George Washington's Revolutionary War Expense Account: September 28, 1775, George Washington to Massachusetts General Court, September 28, 1775, George Washington to Congress, October 5, 1775, Pearson Jones's Account of the Destruction of Falmouth, October 24, 1775, George Washington to Falmouth, Maine, Safety Committee, October 24, 1775, George Washington, General Orders, November 5, 1775, George Washington to Philip Schuyler, November 5, 1775, George Washington to Benedict Arnold, January 27, 1776, George Washington to Jonathan Trumbull, January 7, 1776, George Washington to Charles Lee, January 30, 1776, Charles Lee to George Washington, February 5, 1776, George Washington to Congress, March 27, 1776, George Washington to the New York Safety Committee, April 17, 1776, George Washington to General Artemas Ward, July 9, 1776, Washington's personal copy of the Declaration of Independence, Robert H. Harrison to Congress, August 27, 1776, George Washington to Congress, August 31, 1776, George Washington to Congress, September 16, 1776, George Washington, General Orders, September 17, 1776, George Washington to Congress, September 24, 1776, George Washington on horseback looking back at troops crossing the Delaware River, George Washington to Congress, January 1, 1777, George Washington, General Orders, November 12, 1775, George Washington to Congress, December 31, 1775, George Washington to William Maxwell, April 17, 1777, George Washington to Congress, June 20, 1777, George Washington to Philip Schuyler, June 20, 1777, George Washington, General Orders, November 1, 1777, Anthony Wayne, full-length portrait, standing in uniform with horse in front of tents, George Washington, General Orders, October 3, 1777, George Washington to Congress, October 5, 1777, George Washington to William Howe, October 6, 1777, George Washington to Thomas Conway, November 5, 1777, George Washington to Lafayette, December 31, 1777, George Washington to Patrick Henry, February 19, 1778, George Washington to Patrick Henry, March 28, 1778, George Washington to Nicholas Cooke, January 2, 1778, George Washington to the Inhabitants of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, February 18, 1778, George Washington to Philip Schuyler, James Duane, and Volkert Douw, March 13, 1778, George Washington to Philip Schuyler, July 22, 1778, Joseph Fayadaneega, called the Brant, the Great Captain of the Six Nations, George Washington to Thomas Jefferson, December 28, 1780, George Washington to Henry Laurens, November 14, 1778, George Washington to John Sullivan, March 6, 1779, George Washington to Henry Laurens and Thomas Burke, March 18, 1779, George Washington to Henry Laurens, March 20, 1779, George Washington, Circular Letter, September 27, 1779, George Washington to Congress, October 4, 1779, George Washington to Comte d'Estaing, October 4, 1779, George Washington to Congress, April 2, 1780, George Washington, General Orders, April 6, 1780, George Washington to Congress, June 25, 1780, George Washington to Robert Howe, June 25, 1780, George Washington to Congress, September 26, George Washington to George Clinton, September 26, 1780, George Washington, General Orders, September 26, 1780, George Washington to John Laurens, October 13, 1780, Genl. Congress learns of King George's rejection of the Olive Branch Petition, his declaration that the Colonies are in rebellion, and of reports that British regulars sent to subdue them will be accompanied by German mercenaries. June 15, Washington is appointed commander in chief of the Continental Army. William Tryon, former royal governor of New York, and 2,600 loyalists and British regulars on forty-eight ships raid Fairport, New Haven, and Norwalk, Connecticut. Washington establishes a naval force to battle the British off the New England coast and to prey on British supply ships. Referring to the glasses he must wear to read the extract, he says, "Gentleman, you must pardon me. After several years of war, "we now find ourselves at least upon a level with our opponents." Herkimer dies of his wounds. 1774 | 1775 | 1776 | 1777 | 1778 | 1779 | 1780 | 1781 | 1782 | 1783. De Kalb is mortally wounded, and after heavy fighting Gates is forced to retreat by Lord Rawdon and Cornwallis and their forces. Congress commissions Steuben a major general and makes him an inspector general of the Continental Army. Clark has been organizing the defense of the sparsely settled Kentucky region against British and Indian ally raids. He is commissioned a major general by Congress and meets Washington on August 1. Benedict Arnold will carry the Address on his march through the Maine wilderness to take Quebec. George Washington to Henry Laurens, November 14, 1778. February 14, Greene and Williams cross the Dan River into Virginia. George Washington to the New York Safety Committee, April 17, 1776. Major General Charles Lee and British General Henry Clinton both arrive in New York City on the same day. George Washington to Nicholas Cooke, January 2, 1778. To prevent them from serving the British instead, he has decided to re-enlist them. He withdraws to Boston and later sails for the Caribbean Islands where he attacks British islands. December 23, at Annapolis where Congress is located, Washington submits his resignation of his military commission as commander in chief. The American Revolution has become an international war. Jefferson, governor of Virginia, and other state officials flee to the Shenandoah Valley. Clinton's proclamation to the citizens of South Carolina calls for a declaration of allegiance to the Crown. Washington issues general orders to the army, announcing that they and those who enlist "are now Troops of the United Provinces of North America," and expressing hope "that all Distinctions of Colonies will be laid aside; so that one and the same Spirit may animate the whole, and the only Contest be, who shall render, on this great and trying occasion, the most essential service to the Great and common cause in which we are all engaged." George Washington to Congress, September 24, 1776. He is less excusing of this mutiny because, as he writes in a circular letter to the New England state governors, Congress has been working to redress the Continental Army's grievances. By June 22, the British are in New Jersey, and Benedict Arnold is fast approaching the twelve-mile long baggage train that makes up the end of Clinton's marching army. British General John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga, to General Horatio Gates, the new commander of the northern army. George Washington to William Maxwell, April 17, 1777. Steuben becomes an American citizen after the war. The Pennsylvania Continentals mutiny. A formal request from Howe is sent to Congress via captured American general, John Sullivan. In his October 5 letter to Congress, Washington describes how one of Church's letters to Gage was intercepted. Laurens has been attempting to raise such a regiment since 1779, first in his native South Carolina, then in Georgia. Failing to take the Fort, the British retreat to New York. Commanding 8,000 Continentals and 3,000 militia are Generals Adam Stephen, Nathanael Greene, Alexander McDougall, John Sullivan, Anthony Wayne, and Thomas Conway. The Crisis had just been published December 23 in Philadelphia. The Battle of Oriskany, British Colonel Barry St. Leger and Seneca Indians and loyalists ambush patriot German militia and Oneida Indian allies under command of General Nicholas Herkimer. Congress establishes commissions on Indian relations for the north, middle, and southern regions of the Colonies. General William Howe, and his brother, Admiral Richard Howe, arrive in New York harbor from Boston. British General Henry Clinton sends approximately 3,000 troops south under Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Campbell, and a fleet under command of Admiral Hyde Parker is assembled to coordinate an invasion of South Carolina and Georgia with General Augustine Prevost and his regular and loyalist troops in Florida. British Major James Mark Prevost defeats Brigadier General John Ashe and his force at Briar Creek, Georgia. Congress finds various reasons for not allowing Burgoyne's army to leave, for fear that its return to England or the Continent will free an equal number of other troops to come to North America to fight. The Highlands are a range of hills across the Hudson Valley. In the Battle of Brandywine, Howe and Washington clash, with major engagements near Birmingham Meeting House Hill. Washington plans a combined assault on the British on Manhattan Island. George Washington to Jonathan Trumbull, January 7, 1776 | George Washington to Charles Lee, January 30, 1776. There the troops have been suffering severe hardships and to some critics they no longer resemble an organized army. Howe attacks on Long Island and the American lines retreat. Washington acknowledges these extraordinary powers, assuring Congress that he will use them to its honor.

New York City is lost to the British. General Francis Marion and militia attack a British detachment, rescuing the Maryland regiment captured at Camden. He also writes commander of the northern army, Philip Schuyler, on the importance of the acquisition of Canada to the American cause. Prior to the march to King's Mountain, Ferguson sends a threatening message ahead that he will lay waste to the land if its inhabitants do not cease resistance. General Wilhelm von Knyphausen and Clinton attempt to lure Washington's army out of Morristown. [The text of Cornwallis's letter is reproduced in annotation in the transcription linked to this document.] Carleton has been appointed by the British government to negotiate the cessation of hostilities and the exchange and liberation of prisoners. Stirling is forced to retreat without attacking because of the severe cold. Nathanael Greene (who took command of the Southern Army at Charlotte, North Carolina, December 2, 1780) leads General Charles Cornwallis and his forces on a chase through South and North Carolina. British General Henry Clinton returns to New York City from the south. Robert H. Harrison, one of Washington's aides, writes Congress with news of the day's battle and information on Washington's current whereabouts on Long Island. Officers are confined on land, while enlisted soldiers are held in prison ships in the harbor. British General Henry Clinton summons General Benjamin Lincoln to surrender before beginning bombardment of Charleston, South Carolina. Since 1776, the French government has been secretly providing Congress with military supplies and financial aid. He plans to invade Virginia. On May 30, New York Governor George Clinton orders out the militia. Neither of these positions are maintained after their capture, but they are morale boosters in a war that has become a stalemate. 1745-1747, Lesson Plan - George Washington: First in War, First in Peace, and First in the Hearts of His Countrymen, Resource Guide - American President: George Washington, Miller Center (UVa), Index George Washington Papers (Washington, D.C., 1964), Papers of George Washington Digital Edition, American Founding Era Collection. August 14, he learns that the French fleet, consisting of 34 warships with transports carrying 3200 troops will be arriving in the Chesapeake from the West Indies under the command of Admiral Francois Joseph Paul, Comte de Grasse, and will be available for a combined effort until October 19. Benedict Arnold and 900 Continentals arrive, forcing St. Leger to retreat back to Canada. Washington sends out an expedition under command of General John Sullivan.

Throughout the early winter Washington orders raids on British forces left in New York. British Major John Simcoe leads two hundred of his Rangers in a foray into New Jersey. In the frontier war along the New York and Pennsylvania frontier, Onandagas, Cayugas, Senecas, and Mohawks of the Iroquois League ally with the British. George Washington's Revolutionary War Expense Account. (Johann von Ewald, Diary of the American War: A Hessian Journal [New Haven and London: 1979].). George Washington, General Orders, November 5, 1775 | George Washington to Philip Schuyler, November 5, 1775, Benedict Arnold and Richard Montgomery and their forces join on the St. Lawrence River to attack Quebec. Cornwallis sends Major Patrick Ferguson ahead of him to raise loyalist troops in North Carolina. Clark and about 175 men take the fort and town, which is inhabited mainly by French settlers. Washington moves his headquarters to Middlebrook, south of Morristown. State militias respond with expeditions and raids of their own. There, Major General John Vaughn learns of Burgoyne's surrender at Saratoga the previous day. But discussions cease when the committee learns that Howe's only offer is that if the rebels lay down their arms, they may await the generosity of the British government. George Washington, General Orders, November 12, 1775 | George Washington to Congress, December 31, 1775. The officers, most of whom are at the army's headquarters at Newburgh, learn that Congress has rejected the petition. The capture of this city "would give them the Command of the Country and the Communication with Canada." But Knyphausen, commanding in Clinton's absence, orders Simcoe to confine himself to raids. Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane, and Thomas Jefferson are named American commissioners to France by Congress. George Washington to General Artemas Ward, July 9, 1776. British General Henry Clinton begins to move the main part of the British army from Pennsylvania to New York via New Jersey. April 22, Congress resolves not to engage in negotiations on terms that fall short of complete independence. Washington believes he has come "principaly to satisfy his Curiosity." Washington closes his letter to Jefferson with a full history of Benedict Arnold's defection to the British. Forty Iroquois villages and their extensive farms lands and crops have been destroyed.